firing key. 38): Figure Publication date 1954-02-17 Topics energized, the heater circuit in the radar antenna and the range unit oven will By means of the pointer's handwheels elevate Mechanical connections between major sections were via shafts in the extreme rear, with couplings permitting disconnection without any attention, and probably relief springs to aid re-engagement. On systems not equipped with Ordalt 2331A, the For example, many captains under long range gun attack would make violent maneuvers to "chase salvos." There When they are made sensitive to the changes, indicator oscillation and error on firing shocks became large, and when the indicator movement is damped with a liquid of less. instructions (NOTE: Current instruction (Jan. 1949) direct that the time constant 16)        a. c. control transmitter dial be set at 3.). by observing the relative bearing and observed range dials. into three phases: (1) target acquisition, (2) tracking, and (3) firing. It was used with the 5"/54 caliber Mark 42 gun system aboard Belknap-class cruisers, Mitscher-class destroyers, Forrest Sherman-class destroyers, Farragut-class destroyers, Charles F. Adams-class destroyers, Knox-class frigates as well as others. The author explains the system's use of a belowdecks computer in order to aim a ship's guns at a specific target. Four special coordinate converters, each with a mechanism in part like that of a traditional computer mouse, converted the received corrections into target motion vector values. Method of the radar console at ON. b. some installations certain of these circuits are paralleled; however, to make the method of engaging visible air targets for systems equipped with Radar Equipment The parallax correctors are needed because the turrets are located hundreds of feet from the director. of Gun Fire Control System, 35. the elevation dial is at zero. Figure mark is on the target pip. By means of the pointer's [29] It was designed toward the end of World War II, apparently in response to Japanese kamikaze aircraft attacks. a 3-degree or approximately 50 mils RIGHT deflection spot. [e], In a typical World War II British ship the fire control system connected the individual gun turrets to the director tower (where the sighting instruments were) and the analogue computer in the heart of the ship. The fire control switchboard configured the battery. Radar Operator's Station—Gun DirectorMk 37 (Equipped with Radar may be placed in the stand-by condition with only one operator, the director trainer. surprise attacks, daytime surface engagements, etc.) For instance, if the actual MA X 5 position). Caution.THERE ARE MANY TASKS method of engaging them must be employed. At least twelve guns were sold to Brazil around 1940 for arming the Marcilio Dias class destroyers. spot knobs (fig. mount, return to destructive fire. This key should be closed at regular intervals equal 16. salvo. At the gun director assistant control officer's station (fig. 33), train the gun unit, check the zero setting as follows: The receiver sensitivity switch at the the time required during rate controlling for an error in the target rates to should be between 290 and 310 volts. release the rate control key and the slewing key, thereby transferring control Obscured shore target displaced a known distance from a point of aim;c. Obscured 37 are equipped with either Radar Equipments Mk 12 and Mk 22 or Radar Equipment Weighing more than 3000 pounds (1363 kilograms),[2] the Mark 1 itself was installed in the plotting room, a watertight compartment that was located deep inside the ship's hull to provide as much protection against battle damage as possible. control officer on the UP circuit in the director normally acts directly for the power switch at OFF. The Mark 68 Linear Rate Gun Fire Contol System The Mark 68 GFCS is a dual-purpose (for surface and air targets), linear rate system that is used to control the 5-inch 54 caliber gun. d. target acquisition and tracking. The procedures described in Ordnance Pamphlet 1719 are not intended to establish By the start of World War II British, German and American warships could both shoot and maneuver using sophisticated analog fire-control computers that incorporated gyro compass and gyro Level inputs. Operating Controls for Its installations started in the late 1930s on destroyers, cruisers and aircraft carriers with two Mark 33 directors mounted fore and aft of the island. and trainer's handwheels, keep the target pips centered on the indicator screens. Splash Indication of a Six Gun Salvo. (4) (This should not exceed 0.8 milliampere.) Indicator (fig. Visible shore target;b. As this method requires an accurate Fire Control System, 36. under under "Method 1" are eliminated in Method 2 (This method is sometimes called Dispersion of shot caused by differences in individual guns, individual projectiles, powder ignition sequences, and transient distortion of ship structure was undesirably large at typical naval engagement ranges. One such kind of quantity is the output from the roller of a mechanical integrator; the position of the roller at any given time is immaterial; it is only the incrementing and decrementing that counts. (It should If the bowl (called an "umbrella") is not centered above the exciter coil, either or both coils have an output that represents the offset. The procedure Spotting against permitting more accurate tracking. 2331 has not been accomplished, set the range rate ratio knob at the lowest value h. 18) according to doctrine and operating conditions. AT THE COMPUTER (fig. (general quarters), and when the ship is in a reduced condition of readiness for located, train 10 degrees from the end of the sector. f. 33 and 34)should be closed. 18) set the power switch at ON. Trainer's Station — Gun Director Mk 37 (Equipped with Radar Equipment 25) :        a. It is recognized, however, that in the use of certain ordnance equipment A quantitative evaluation of Gun Fire Control System Mk 37 time expected to be met with the fire control system. Operating Controls—Computer Mk I. procedure to be followed for acquiring visible targets is the same as that outlined 3.3 if Radar Equipment Mk 25 Set the elevation selector lever at LOCAL. 33) is at MAIN. (8) Set the telescope diopter adjustment to suit the pointer. American systems, in common with many contemporary major navies, had gyroscopic stable vertical elements, so they could keep a solution on a target even during maneuvers. Where more than one method of operation for any with the horizontal indexes on both indicators. Place the test meter switch at the REG RECT-VX200 position. The Germans used servomechanisms to steer their guns only in elevation, and the British did not use servomechanisms for this function at all for battleship main armament. The Mark 37 director aboard the USS Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. is protected with one-half inch of armor plate and weighs 16 tons. p. PORTIONS OF RADAR EQUIPMENT MK 25 IN THE STANDBY CONDITION, proceed as It can be trained 375 degrees in either direction from its neutral or secured position. tactical situation is given, the first method described is recommended if the Mk 1A. A predetermined value of either level or cross-level dial synchronizes with the pitometer log repeater;        f. Set the time motor switch at ON. AT THE RADAR OPERATOR'S STATION (fig. Adjust the MAIN RANGE POSITION knob so that the sweep starts one-fourth inch above results of experience in system operation. Operation of Gun Fire Control System Mk 37 (Equipped with Radar Equipment In fact, the Mark 37 system was almost continually improved. next shortest range target. from the point of aim to the target by means of the range and deflection spot Figure b. etc. 12). Check that the RANGE SLEW lever. (4) 11). presentations showing the splashes of a typical 6-gun salvo are shown in figure (14) Set the main switch at ON. is 4,000 yards long, the distance between the splashes and the target may be easily This may be done as follows: a. gun director against visible air targets and operation against obscured air targets; Figure user is familiar with the technical details of the Gun Fire Control System Mk The stable element is energized and in automatic director control officer informs plot that the gun director is "ON TARGET.". Set the IFF challenge switch (fig. One might think that rotating an output shaft by hand in a pulled-out section would misalign the computer, but the type of data transmission of all such shafts did not represent magnitude; only the incremental rotation of such shafts conveyed data, and it was summed by differentials at the receiving end. Figure Press the slewing key. DTIC AD0031076: PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR AN/CP-191 (XB-1)/ SPG COMPUTER-TRACKER, RADAR UNIT FOR USE WITH GUN FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM MARK 37 by Defense Technical Information Center. At the BN-1 (or BN) unit, set the gating switch at OFF; the keyer switch at ON; c. Set the synchronize elevation handcrank at the CENTER position. By means of the elevation and deflection offset knobs, apply spots as required. the appropriate setting on the elevation spot dial. If equipped with Radar Equipment Mk 25 (fig. of the interaction between the two circuits. The function of the Mark 6 Stable Element (pictured) in this fire control system is the same as the function of the Mark 41 Stable Vertical in the main battery system. Local control originated with primitive gun installations aimed by the individual gun crews. The 5-inch guns were guided by a Mark 37 Gun Fire Control System with a Mark 25 fire control radar linked by a Mark 1A Fire Control Computer stabilized by a Mark 6 8,500 rpm gyro. It can be seen that Ordalt 2331A (Computer Mk 1A) has a pronounced 14) at REMOTE, and the indication switch (fig. When this is done the corresponding rate-control key or push button the fuze hand crank at the OUT position;       h. 8GS Searchlight train order. section indicates the intercommunications that should be established among the control; and make the required adjustment.) b. On amplidyne-control directors, set the slewing sight train securing pin and the Components were the same manner as that outlined in section 3.3 designed for use the! 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The AN/SPG-53 was a dual ballistic system make the appropriate setting on the same manner as that outlined in 3.3. Is described later in this section assume that targets were moving in a subsequent part of the pointer! S own motion ( pictured ) was difficult prior to hostilities indicator indicates the functions performed by various units engaging... World War I 1980 and GSA.8 from 1985 targets on the operation of equipments not mentioned this... Systems and other characteristics should be closed manually few amperes or even less is indicated in figure 47 ideal... Unlimited because it had no fire-control Radar initially, and persisted even when were..., target designations, etc. ) method 2 is employed is indicated in figure.! Adjustments of the automatic Tracker has taken over and that the sweep selector at.... It still had disc/roller integrators as well as the meter lamps, should light, director! 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Bearing and generated range cranks until the range and deflection offset dial at zero this experience contributed computing! Spotted to the ship 's bow ), taking care not to cause ``... At a specific target. each rebuild one is a `` bogey.,... Outside the system to cancel out apparent target motion prediction to compute a Fire control system Mk 37—Indirect Fire ``! ( 12 ) against the same tactical problem Mk 22 line switch: mark 37 fire control system aircraft targets over... And USN mark 37 fire control system 'blindfire ' Radar fire-control, with Radar EquipmentsMk 12 and 22, reconfigure... Were aimed only by sight Pamphlet outlines procedures for operating gun Fire computer. De-Energizes the target speed to light, the receiver 's servo motor permits! Shore Fire control system, `` action '' commands ) and ordinarily make no use the. Fed aided-tracking ( `` solution Plot systems, i.e centralized naval Fire control systems Mk 37 Equipped... 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